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PoEML: A separation-of-concerns proposal to instructional design

Book Chapter
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez
This chapter apears in Handbook of visual languages for instructional design: theories and practices edited by L. Botturi & T. Stubbs, IGI Global www-igi-pub.com. Posted by permission of the publisher. 2007 (publication pending)

Abstract

This chapter introduces a new visual Educational Modeling Language (EML) based on a separation-ofconcerns approach, PoEML: Perspective-oriented EML. EMLs were proposed to support the modeling of educational units. These languages are related to ID, as they are intended to represent models of educational units. This chapter introduces the PoEML separation of concerns and its graphic constructs.

The main idea underlying PoEML is to break down the modeling of educational units into separate parts that can be specified independently. PoEML is mainly focused on supporting the computational execution of educational unit models. In addition, the separation of concerns allows us to approach the modeling of educational units in an incremental way, offering advantages in expressiveness, formality, adaptability and flexibility.

Comparing visual instructional design languages: a case study

Book Chapter
L. Botturi, D. Burgos, M. Caeiro, M. Derntl, R. Koper, P. Parrish, T. Sodhi, C. Tattersall
This chapter apears in Handbook of visual languages for instructional design: theories and practices edited by L. Botturi & T. Stubbs, IGI Global www-igi-pub.com. Posted by permission of the publisher. 2007 (publication pending)

Abstract

This handbook testifies that research on VIDL is lively, and has produced a number of interesting design languages and tools. This chapter wants to support readers in understanding the similarities and differences of some of the VIDL presented in the previous chapters, not in theory, but applying them to a specific instructional design case.

Components of an EML proposal for the modeling of collaborative learning

Book Chapter
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas Nistal, Luis Anido Rifón
Computers and Education – Towards Educational Change and Innovation. Springer-Verlag, 2007 (pendiente de publicación)

Learning Objects and Instructional Design: From Contents to Activities

Book Chapter
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez
In A. Koohang& K. Harman, (Eds.), Learning Objects and Instructional Design, pp. 219-252. Informing Science Press, 2007, Santa Rosa, California

A Flexible Infrastructure for the Support of Distributed Learning

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro, Luis Anido, Martín Llamas, Luis M. Álvárez, Fernando A. Mikic
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2657, pp. 581-590. Springer-Verlag, 2003, Germany. I.S.S.N.: 0302-9743

Abstract

This paper describes an infrastructure devoted to support distributed learning by Information and Communication Technologies. Our purpose is to provide a flexible solution that facilitates the execution of any kind of teaching/learning strategy, where faculty can apply their own methodology without worrying about technological issues. The IMS Learning Design specification offers the underlying semantic framework used to describe any pedagogical approach in a formal way. Our infrastructure supports the creation of final learning systems that can execute learning descriptions expressed according to this framework, providing the services and functionalities required to obtain the maximum learning support and control. Therefore, learning experiences are supported, automated, and executed distributely. We use workflow and groupware technologies in order to support coordination and cooperation in distributed environments, and an object-oriented approach to provide openness, scalability, and flexibility.

Keywords

  • Learn Object;
  • Intelligent Tutor System;
  • Learn Design;
  • Computer Assist Instruction;
  • Computer Support Collaborative Work

Standardization in Computer Based Learning

Journal paper
Judith Rodríguez-Estévez, Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, and Juan M. Santos-Gago

Abstract

In recent years, the evolution of information and communications technologies (ICT) has given rise to a great many e-Learning systems and resources, bringing with it, as is customary, problems of reuse and interoperability. As a result of this situation, a number of international institutions and groups have embarked on a process of standardization in order to obtain a set of broadly accepted recommendations.

This article aims to show readers the present state of the art and current trends in the standardization process of computer based learning.

Keywords

  • Data models;
  • e-Learning systems;
  • Interoperability;
  • Reuse;
  • Standardization

Hacia el Soporte de Actividades de Aprendizaje Heterogéneas

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro, Martín Llamas, Luis Anido
Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial, Vol. 8, No. 24, pp. 77-86. 2004, Valencia. I.S.S.N.: 1137-3601

From Contents to Activities: Modelling Units of Learning

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol. 11, pp. 1458-1469. Know-Center in cooperation with Springer, 2005, Austria. I.S.S.N.: : 0948-69x. Online I.S.S.N.: : 0948-6968.

Keywords

  • Collaborative learning;
  • e-Learning;
  • Educational modelling language;
  • Learning object;
  • unit of learning

Towards a Benchmark for the Evaluation of LD Expressiveness and Suitability

Journal paper
M. Caeiro, L. Anido, M. Llamas
Journal of Interactive Media Education, Vol. 4. Open University of the United Kindong, 2005, United Kindogn. I.S.S.N.: 1365-893X

Abstract

IMS Learning Design (LD) has been presented as the EML standard. We propose a methodology to achieve an evaluation benchmark for LD and EMLs based on the identification of perspectives and patterns. We consider a perspective as a feature of an EML with a specific purpose which can be analyzed independently. For each identified perspective, we study the involved patterns. A pattern is an abstraction that is frequently repeated in a design domain, it can be considered as a typical solution to a common problem. Perspectives and patterns provide the criteria that will made up the evaluation benchmark. The evaluation benchmark is proposed to carry out two kinds of evaluation: expressiveness and suitability. The final purpose is to contribute to the development of LD in order to enhance the reusability and interoperability of units of learning.

 

Keywords

  • e-learning development;
  • IMS Learning Design;
  • Educational Modelling Language;
  • Evaluation;
  • Benchmark;
  • Perspective;
  • Pattern;
  • Innovation;
  • Educational technology

Modelling Group-based Education. A Proposal for a Meta-Model

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3716, pp. 96-111. Springer-Verlag, 2005, Germany. I.S.S.N.: 0302-9743

Abstract

Currently, one of the most important application domains for Software Engineering is distance education and e-learning. There exist some standards/specifications that deal with the definition of both the data models and services needed in this environment. Among them, Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs) define the content and process within a unit of instruction. Nevertheless, current EMLs do not completely cover the whole educational scenarios. This paper uses workflow management techniques to present a conceptual meta-model for group-based educational design. This meta-model includes all required elements, flows and policies needed in this domain. Lacks in current Educational Modelling Languages will be identified to model group-based education.

 

Keywords

  • Data Connector;
  • Learn Object Metadata;
  • CSCL Script;
  • Role Transfer;
  • Educational Scenario

A Proposal for a Web Service-based Architecture to Support the Enactment of Units of Learning

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
Lecture Notes in Informatics, Vol. P-75, pp. 180-193. Gesellschaft f�r Informatik (GI), 2005, Germany. I.S.S.N.: 1617-5468.

Abstract

This paper proposes an architecture based on Web services to support the enactment of ‘units of learning’ (e.g. a course, a lesson, a lab practice) modeled in accordance with an Educational Modeling Language (EML). These languages enable the modeling of instructional practices following a process-based approach, similar to a workflow language. Therefore, the units of learning involve the entities and dependencies that participate during instruction, namely: actors (e.g. learners, tutors), data, applications and services, tasks, process, etc. An important part of such units is made up by the learning environments where existing services and applications are integrated. This paper is concerned with the description of an architecture that involves Web services ideas and specifications to satisfy the requirements of this modeling, focusing mainly on the provision of the learning environments.

Meta-modelling of Educational Practices for Adaptive Web Based Education Systems

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol.: 3806, pp. 595-596. Springer-Verlag, 2005, Germany. I.S.S.N.: 0302-9743

Abstract

This paper proposes a component-based architecture for adaptive Web-based education systems that support a particular kind of EML models. Our work is concerned with the development of an EML meta-model to provide an enhanced support for the modeling of collaborative practices. The proposal is based on the identification of perspectives.

The PoEML Proposal to Model Services in Educational Modeling Languages

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4154, pp. 187-202. Springer-Verlag, 2006, Germany. I.S.S.N.: 0302-9743

Abstract

This paper proposes a framework to support the modeling of services in Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs). EMLs have been proposed to support the modeling of educational units (e.g. a theoretical distance learning course, a lab practice, a discussion-based course). Their modeling approach is based on the featuring of the elements involved in educational units (e.g. participants, data, tasks) and the coordination among these elements (e.g. the order between tasks, the data flow, the assignment of participants to tasks). A key issue in EMLs is the modeling of environments where participants are intended to interact. This part of the modeling involves the featuring of the services and the coordination requited to obtain appropriate service interactions. The paper describes the perspectives of a new EML proposal named PoEML (Perspective-oriented Educational Modeling Language) devoted to the modeling of services and their coordination: operational, interaction, awareness and authorization. 

Keywords

  • Service Orient Architecture;
  • Composite Event;
  • Service Description;
  • Primitive Operation;
  • Event Instance 

Un Lenguaje Gráfico para el Modelado de Unidades Didácticas en Ingeniería

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
IEEE- RITA, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 35-44, May, 2007. I.S.S.N.: 1932-8540 2

Abstract

The main idea underlying PoEML is to break down the modeling of educational units into separate parts that can be specified independently. PoEML is mainly focused on supporting the computational execution of educational unit models. In addition, the separation of concerns allows us to approach the modeling of educational units in an incremental way, offering advantages in expressiveness, formality, adaptability and flexibility.This paper introduces a graphical language to support the creation of computational models of educational units: PoEML (Perspective oriented EML). In general, EMLs (Educational Modelling Languages) are devoted to support the modelling of educational units. PoEML approaches the modelling of educational units following the separation-of-concerns principle. The main idea underlying PoEML is to break down the modelling of educational units into separate parts that can be specified step by step. In correspondence, the model of each part can be represented by a different graphical diagram, involving specific elements and relations. This separation-of-concerns approach simplifies the development of models while a high expressiveness is offered. Particularly, it supports the development of engineering educational units. In addition, it also enables to improve the reusability, adaptability and flexibility of the created models.

Keywords

  • Educational Technology;
  • Engineering Education;
  • Modeling;
  • Graphics

A Separation-of-Concerns Analysis of Educational Modeling Language

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro
Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial. Vol. 11, No. 33, pp. 37-46. Spring, 2007. Valencia. I.S.S.N.: 1137-3601

Abstract

Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs) have been proposed to support the modelling of educational units. Eventually, the obtained models should be formal enough to support their computational execution in appropriate e-learning systems. These languages enable us to describe the elements involved in educational units, taking into account static and behaviour features. Specifically, they are focused on the coordination required to obtain desired interactions among the involved elements. A main goal of EMLs is to support the computational modelling of different kinds of educational units: common e-learning courses based on content-delivery, collaboration-based educational activities, practice-based activities, etc. This paper analyse EMLs following a separation of concerns approach with a main focus on coordination issues.

 

Keywords

  • Educational Modeling Language;
  • Decomposition by parts;
  • Coordination;
  • e-Learning

Suporting the Modeling of Flexible Educational Units. PoEML: A Separation of Concerns Approach

Journal paper
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 739-749. Know-Center in cooperation with Springer, 2007, Austria. I.S.S.N.: : 0948-69x. Online I.S.S.N.: : 0948-6968.

Abstract

Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs) have been proposed to support the modeling of educational units. Currently, there are some EML proposals devoted to provide a computational base, enabling the software processing and execution of educational units’ models. In this context, flexibility is a key requirement in order to support alternatives and changes . This paper presents a Perspective-oriented Educational Modeling Language (PoEML) that simplifies and facilitates the modeling of alternatives and the performance of changes. The key point of the proposal is the separation of the modeling in several concerns that can be managed almost independently. As a result, changes at each concern can be performed without affecting to other concerns, or affecting in controlled ways.

Keywords

  • Educational modeling language;
  • Flexibility;
  • Separation of concerns

Towards a Common Infrastructure to Support Heterogeneous Learning Experiences

International Conference Papers
M. Caeiro, L. Anido, M. Llamas
The Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference WWW'12. Budapest, Hungary, May 2003

Abstract

One of the greatest challenges in the field of software engineering is to design and implement reusableadaptable and scalable software systems. Current learning technology systems do not provide more of these features, nor the necessary functionality to manage different kinds of learning experiences. In this paper, we present a proposal for a flexible infrastructure that enables the provision of technological support for the realization of heterogeneous learning experiences. We use the IMS Learning Design specification to provide a common underlying framework, and support the description of generic learning processes.

 

Keywords

  • Resource management;
  • Collaborative systems;
  • Interoperability;
  • Distributed Objects

A Flexible Infrastructure for the Support of Distributed Learning

International Conference Papers
M. Caeiro, L. Anido, M. Llamas, L.M. Álvarez, F.A. Mikic
International Conference on Computational Science ICCS 2003. Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, June 2003

Abstract

This paper describes an infrastructure devoted to support distributed learning by Information and Communication Technologies. Our purpose is to provide a flexible solution that facilitates the execution of any kind of teaching/learning strategy, where faculty can apply their own methodology without worrying about technological issues. The IMS Learning Design specification offers the underlying semantic framework used to describe any pedagogical approach in a formal way. Our infrastructure supports the creation of final learning systems that can execute learning descriptions expressed according to this framework, providing the services and functionalities required to obtain the maximum learning support and control. Therefore, learning experiences are supported, automated, and executed distributely. We use workflow and groupware technologies in order to support coordination and cooperation in distributed environments, and an object-oriented approach to provide openness, scalability, and flexibility.

 

Keywords

  • Learn Object;
  • Intelligent Tutor System;
  • Learn Design;
  • Computer Assist Instruction;
  • Computer Support Collaborative Work

A Critical Analysis of IMS Learning Design

International Conference Papers
M. Caeiro, L. Anido, M. Llamas
CSCL 2003 Designing for Change in Networked Learning Environments. Bergen, Norway, June 2003

Abstract

The objective of the IMS Learning Design specification is to provide a containment framework of elements that can describe any design of a teaching-learning process in a formal way. The proposed specification is pedagogically neutral and provides a means for defining diverse learning designs (e.g.: collaborative learning, problem-based learning, blended learning). Regardless of the pedagogy involved, in practice every learning design comes to: a Method prescribing various Activities for learner and academic staff Actors in a certain order. We agree with this proposal, but we have found some deficiencies and limitations in the way these elements are described. Considering ideas and solutions of the Activity Theory (AT) and the Workflow Management Systems (WFMS) domain we propose alternative structures to describe the Activity and Method parts of this specification.

Towards a Enhanced Learning Design Language. A Pattern-based Approach

International Conference Papers
M. Caeiro-Rodríguez, M. Llamas-Nistal, L. Anido-Rifón
EduTech. Toulouse, France, August 2004

Abstract

The objective of the IMS Learning Design (LD) Specification is to provide a containment framework of elements that can describe any design of a teaching-learning process in a formal way. It is pedagogical independent and does not impose any learning approach. In previous works we analyzed this specification from a structural perspective and proposed some extensions. In this paper, we consider the tasks and difficulties of learning designers, e.g. teachers, in order to compose courses and learning experiences. We investigate how already existing patterns and possibly pattern languages for learning and pedagogic can be used to improve IMS LD usability. Patterns are used in other domains to describe generic solutions to common problems. Pattern languages structure and relate patterns to each other forming a network of interconnected patterns, providing in this way an enhanced support to design.

 

Keywords

  • E-learning;
  • Educational Modeling Languages;
  • Design Pattern;
  • Pattern Language

Towards IMS-LD Extensions to Actually Support Heterogeneous Learning Designs. A Pattern-based Approach

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Luis Anido-Rifón, Martín Llamas-Nistal
4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Joensu (Finland), August 30 -September 1, 2004

Abstract

The objective of the IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) Specification is to provide a containment framework of elements that can describe any design of a teaching-learning in a formal way. It does not impose any learning approach and is pedagogical independent. In this way, learning designers can precisely prescribe the instructional and teaching strategies. The problem is how common teachers can develop appropriate IMS-LD contents. This paper presents an adequate design approach based on design patterns. Design patterns are being proposed in learning to facilitate the design activities from non expert users. We find these proposals valuable, but consider that additional efforts are required. We propose a language of design patterns for learning, hierarchical structured in several aggregation layers. In addition, we consider generative design issues to obtain IMS-LD materials.

Improving the Modelling of Heterogeneous Learning Activities

International Conference Papers
M. Caeiro-Rodríguez, L. Anido Rifón, M. Llamas-Nistal
8th IFIP World Conference on Computers in Education, Universidad de Stellenbosch, Cape Town (South Africa), July 4-7, 2005

Abstract

The objective of Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs), in particular IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD), is to provide a containment framework of elements that can describe any design of an educational scenario in a formal way. They do not impose any pedagogical approach and are technologically independent. Therefore, designers would be able to describe educational scenarios, independently of the pedagogy and technology used to provide it. These languages are based in the specification of what activities have to be carried out by learners and teachers in order to achieve learning. The problem is that current EMLs’ activity specifications present several deficiencies and do not support the description of certain educational situations. For example, the specification of floor control, data flow control, or resource transfer, are some aspects involved in collaborative situations that are not considered in EMLs.

In this paper we consider the different aspects that should be included in the description of generic learning activities. The paper discuses the description and design of units of learning (e.g. a lesson, a course) according to existing EMLs and makes proposals to improve the description of heterogeneous educational scenarios. We consider a framework that gathers the different aspects that should be included in the design of learning activities. We have centred our attention in the low level aspects, taking into account that higher-level abstractions could be composed using the proposed basic elements. Eventually, the analysis derives in the proposal of a set of extensions on existing IMS-LD specification, in order to provide a more comprehensive EML.

A perspective and Pattern-based Evaluation Framework of EMLs' Expressiveness for Collaborative Learning: Application to IMS LD

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Luis Anido Rifón, Martín Llamas-Nistal
5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Kaohsiung (Taiwan), July 5-8, 2005

Abstract

The objective of Educational Modeling Languages (EML) is to provide a containment framework of elements that can describe any design of a teaching-learning situation in a formal way. In this paper we propose a methodology to evaluate how well an EML support the realization of such descriptions. The methodology is based on the identification of perspectives and patterns. We consider perspectives as features of a learning situation that should be described by an EML and that can be analyzed separately. For each considered perspective, we study the patterns involved, i.e., the more frequent situations. Perspectives and patterns provide the criterions that constitute an evaluation framework. So far, we have focused the methodology in collaborative learning and in the IMS Learning Design specification.

Capturing requirements for the Modelling of Collaborative Learning Experiences

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Luis Anido-Rifón, Martín Llamas-Nistal
8th IASTED Int. Conf. On computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Oranjestad (Aruba), August 27-29, 2005

Abstract

The objective of Educational Modelling Languages (in particular, IMS Learning Design specification) is to provide a containment framework of elements that can describe any design of a teaching-learning experience in a formal way. They do not impose any learning approach and are pedagogical independent. In this way, learning designers can precisely prescribe their instructional and teaching strategies. The problem is that current version of IMS-LD specification does not support some coordination issues involved in learning experiences. For example, collaborative learning practices are not adequately supported because issues such as communication, cooperation, control flow, data flow, and task coupling are not completely reflected. In this paper we consider new requirements to describe collaborative learning activities based on a set of canonical behaviours and interactions.

Keywords

  • Educational Modelling languages;
  • IMS Learning Design;
  • Collaborative Learning;
  • Collaborative Modelling Requirements;

Meta-modeling for Computer-supported Group-based Learning Design

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications. Wroclaw (Poland), September 8-10, 2005

Abstract

Nowadays, there is a huge demand for group-based learning (GBL) pedagogies, involving learners in so-called «active» and «rich» pedagogies. We describe the basis of a meta-model to support the design of computer-supported GBL processes and scenarios. Such proposal is related with recent innovative developments in the e-learning domain: Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs) and CSCL scripts. An EML provides a framework of elements that supports the description of any design of a teaching-learning experience in a formal way, involving learning participants, resources, tasks, scenarios, etc. CSCL scripts are proposed as tasks processes that aim to facilitate GBL by specifying tasks in collaborative settings, eventually sequencing these tasks and assigning them to learners. Therefore, pedagogical designs may be processed by appropriate software engines to enact them, providing automatic management and coordination of the involved elements. The meta-model proposed in this paper is conceived as an initial step to create a new EML.

Keywords

  • Metamodeling;
  • Proposals;
  • Process design;
  • Electronic learning;
  • Collaboration;
  • Engines;
  • Educational technology;
  • Computer science education;
  • Technology management;
  • Intelligent systems

Towards a Benchmark for the Evaluation of LD Expresiveness and Suitability

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
UNFOLD-PROLEARN Joint Workshop. Valkenburg (The Netherlands), July 22-23, 2005

Abstract

IMS Learning Design (LD) has been presented as the EML standard. We propose a methodology to achieve an evaluation benchmark for LD and EMLs based on the identification of perspectives and patterns. We consider a perspective as a feature of an EML with a specific purpose which can be analyzed independently. For each identified perspective, we study the involved patterns. A pattern is an abstraction that is frequently repeated in a design domain, it can be considered as a typical solution to a common problem. Perspectives and patterns provide the criteria that will made up the evaluation benchmark. The evaluation benchmark is proposed to carry out two kinds of evaluation: expressiveness and suitability. The final purpose is to contribute to the development of LD in order to enhance the reusability and interoperability of units of learning.

Keywords

  • IMS Learning Design;
  • Educational Modelling Language;
  • Evaluation Benchmark;
  • Perspective, Pattern

A Proposal of Separation of Concerns in EMLs and its Relation with LD

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Luis Anido Rifón, Martín Llamas-Nistal
6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Kerkrade (The Netherlands), July 5-7, 2006

Abstract

This paper deals with a separation of concerns proposal for educational modeling languages (EMLs). Basically, it proposes to structure these languages in a way different from the one proposed by the IMS learning design (LD) specification, currently considered as the standard EML. We assume that the LD specification is very complex and it is difficult to develop design and runtime applications and to produce EML-educational materials. Therefore, our goal is to simplify the LD specification. The main idea is not to attain the modeling of educational materials as a whole problem, but to divide it in several separated parts that could be solved in a step by step way. We propose two different kinds of parts: perspectives and aspects.

Keywords

  • Proposals;
  • Runtime;
  • Educational technology;
  • Production;
  • Telematics;
  • Electronic learning;
  • Prototypes;
  • Standards publication

Engineering Modular Web-based Education Systems to Support EML Units of Learning

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Luis Anido Rifón, Martín Llamas-Nistal
19th World Computer Congress. Education for the 21st century: Impact of ICT and Digital Resources. Santiago (Chile), August 20-25, 2006

Abstract

Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs) have been proposed to support the modeling of units of learning enabling the description of different pedagogical approaches. Eventually, such models are intended to support the operation of appropriate computer systems, controlling and managing the corresponding units of learning. This paper considers EMLs involving a set of independent perspectives. Our purpose is to use this set of perspectives to facilitate the development of Web-based education systems that are able to support the execution of EML models. As a result, we obtain a modular architecture where different pedagogical approaches can be supported.

A Separation of Concerns Approach to Educational Modeling Languages

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
36th Anual Frontiers in Education Conference. Borders: International, Social and Cultural. San Diego (EE.UU.), October 28-31, 2006

Abstract

This paper presents a separation of concerns approach to educational modeling languages (EMLs). Basically, it proposes to structure these languages in a way different from the one proposed by the IMS learning design (LD) specification, currently considered as the standard EML. In our opinion the LD specification is very complex. It is difficult to develop design and runtime applications and to produce EML-educational materials. Therefore, our goal is to simplify the complexity under EMLs providing a more structured solution. The main idea is not to attain the modeling of educational materials as a whole problem, but to divide it in several separated concerns that could be solved part by part. Two different kinds of parts are proposed: perspectives and aspects. In addition, flexibility is considered to support modifications. The paper introduces the theoretical ideas of the proposal and a modeling example.

Keywords

  • Educational Modeling Languages;
  • IMS Learning Design;
  • Separation of Concerns;
  • Perspectives and Aspects

A Modeling Language for Collaborative Learning Educational Units. Supporting the Coordination of Collaborative Activities

International Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez
9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. Funchal (Portugal), July 12-16, 2007

Abstract

This paper introduces a modeling language to support the computational modeling of collaborative learning educational units. The languages supporting the computational modeling educational units are named as Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs). EMLs have been proposed to facilitate the development of complex and large e-learning applications. The introduced language is proposed as an EML specially oriented towards collaborative learning. A main goal is to enable the modeling of the variety of ways in which human interaction can be supported (e.g. well structured and ill-structured, synchronous and asynchronous, strictcoordination and free-collaboration). To do it, a separation of concerns approach is followed. The proposal, named as Perspective-oriented EML (PoEML), involves several parts (named as perspectives) where all the modeling issues are arranged and separated. The paper introduces the ideas and constructs of the main PoEML perspectives towards the modeling of the variety of forms for collaboration suppor.

Keywords

  • Modeling;
  • Collaboration Support;
  • Computer-supported Collaborative Learning;
  • Educational Modeling Language

Análisis de Componentes para un Modelo de Descripción de Unidades de Aprendizaje Heterogéneas

Ibero-American Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro, Fernando Mikic, Luis Anido, Martín Llamas
III Congreso Iberoamericano de Telemática. Montevideo (Uruguay), October 2003

Abstract

Educational on-line environments benefit from the use of Information and Communication Technologies to support conventional teaching/learning paradigms. Current technology-based learning systems can support the proceses and behaviours involved in traditional and distance teaching-learning aproaches broadly. Nevertheless, these systems are usually tailored for a specific educational methodology focused in a certain kind of suppord, and hardly provide alternative possibilities. The recent Educational Modeling Languages, like IMS Learning Design, try to provide a suitable support for the specification and design of generic learning models. This paper takes this specification as reference and try to find the set of components that must be taken into acount in order to support the formal description of heterogeneous learning units. Our final purpose is to develop an infraestructure than can provide support for these heterogeneous learning units accordingly to the identify components.

Keywords

  • Activity Theory;
  • IMS Learning Design;
  • e-Learning;
  • CSCL;
  • Trabajo Colaborativo;
  • Workflow;
  • Groupware

E-Learning Patterns: an Approach to Facilitate the Design of E-Learning Materials

Ibero-American Conference Papers
M. Caeiro, M. Llamas, L. Anido
RIBIE. Monterrey, México, October 2004

Abstract

During the last years several proposals of e-learning patterns have been published and some projects have been initiated. E-learning patterns are focused to produce mechanisms to help in the design of learning materials and systems, considering the same principles initially established for architectural design patterns. In this paper we review the different alternatives and discuss about their nature and usability. Then we propose an organization to arrange patterns according to a clear structure. We also relate the pattern initiative with Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs) to facilitate the production of eventual educational materials.

From Contents to Activities: Modelling Units of Learning

Ibero-American Conference Papers
M. Caeiro-Rodríguez, M. Llamas-Nistal, L. Anido-Rifón
6º Simposio Internacional de Informática Educativa (SIIE 04). Cáceres (Spain) November 2004

Abstract

This paper discuses the description and design of units of learning (e.g. a lesson, a course) in web-based learning. To date, educational design was heavily based on content definition and organization. Currently, activity design is gaining a great attention. There is a shift from contents to activities that is directly related to the apparition of Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs), of which IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is the most outstanding proposal. IMS-LD supports the definition of learning activities considering environment, goals, structure, and participants in an activity. But these aspects are not enough to design certain learning types, for example collaborative learning activities involve a lot of aspects and elements related to human-computer interaction and human collaboration. In this paper we consider a framework of elements that gather the different aspects that should be included in the design of collaborative learning activities.

Standards Support for Different Learning Models in Web-based Education

Ibero-American Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro, Martín Llamas, Luis Anido
International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education (ICECE) 2005. Madrid (Spain), November 14-16, 2005

Abstract

This paper presents the state of the art and current trends in the standardization of e-learning contents for Web-based education. These standards are intended to represent in an electronic format the course materials, lesson plans, lab practices, etc. that are used to fuel Webbased education systems. There are several standardization initiatives that need to be considered, differentiating between meta-data and content packaging specifications, used to facilitate the search, classification, transfer, etc. of e-learning contents, and other proposals more concerned with the structure and modelling of such contents (e.g. enabling the expression of different learning models). At this point, we have included a discussion about Learning Objects’ content organization proposals (e.g SCORM) and Educational Modelling Languages (e.g. IMS Learning Design) that follow and activity-centred approach. The paper is intended to serve as a structured and clear introduction to the current standardization process of elearning contents.

Keywords

  • Educational Modelling Languages;
  • Elearning standardization;
  • Learning models;
  • Learning Object meta-data;
  • Web-based education

An EML meta-model proposal for the modelling of Collaborative Educational Practices

Ibero-American Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido-Rifón
VII Simposio Internacional de Informática Educativa (SIIE). Leiria (Portugal), November 16-18, 2005

Abstract

Educational Modelling Languages have been proposed to enable the conceptual description of educational processes to be supported by computational systems. These languages are mainly concerned with the modelling of the coordination issues involved in educational practices, namely: learners, tutors, contents, tasks, assignments, document flows, etc. They abstract from any technological or pedagogical consideration and focus themselves on the modelling of the elements and interactions involved. In this paper we propose a meta-model to achieve an eventual modelling language in this field. Current proposals are defined as generic languages able to describe any educational scenario or practice. We consider that they do not adequately support some coordination issues and our proposal is mainly focused on collaborative learning. It tries to enable the modelling of the information managed and their transmission between tasks, and of the roles involved and their assignment to different tasks. The paper contains an example demonstrating the use of the meta-mode.

Keywords

  • Collaborative learning;
  • EML;
  • IMS Leaning Design;
  • Modelling and Meta-modelling

A Proposal to Support the Management and Coordination of Applications and Services in Educational Modeling Languages

Ibero-American Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido Rifón
IV Congreso Iberoamericano de Telemática. Monterrey (México), May 3-5, 2006

Abstract

This paper is about the modeling of applications and services in the context of Educational Modeling Languages’ (EMLs) e-learning environments. EMLs have been proposed to support the modeling and execution of educational practices independently of their pedagogical approach (e.g. a theoretical distance learning course, a lab practice, a discussion-based activity). The approach followed by EMLs to model these practices involves the description of the participants (e.g. learners, tutors), the data available, the tasks to be performed, the order in which tasks are intended to be performed, etc. A key issue is the description of e-learning environments where participants are intended to interact to perform tasks. These e-learning environments are mainly featured by the functionality they are intended to provide. This paper introduces the requirements to support the modeling of EMLs’ e-learning environments and it contains some proposals to enable the description, integration and management of applications and services to provide the intended functionality

A Separation of Concerns Approach to Simplify the Computacional Modelling of Educational Units

Ibero-American Conference Papers
Manuel Caeiro-RodríAbstract This paper describes an infrastructure devoted to support distributed learning by Information and Communication Technologies. Our purpose is to provide a flexible solution that facilitates the execution of any kind of teaching/learning strategy, where faculty can apply their own methodology without worrying about technological issues. The IMS Learning Design specification offers the underlying semantic framework used to describe any pedagogical approach in a formal way. Our infrastructure supports the creation of final learning systems that can execute learning descriptions expressed according to this framework, providing the services and functionalities required to obtain the maximum learning support and control. Therefore, learning experiences are supported, automated, and executed distributely. We use workflow and groupware technologies in order to support coordination and cooperation in distributed environments, and an object-oriented approach to provide openness, scalability, and flexibility. Keywords Learn Object; Intelligent Tutor System; Learn Design; Computer Assist Instruction; Computer Support Collaborative Workguez, Martín Llamas-Nistal, Luis Anido Rifón
III Simposio Pluridisciplinar sobre Objetos y Diseños de Aprendizaje Apoyados en la Tecnología. Oviedo (Spain), September 15-27,2006

Abstract

Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs) have been proposed to support the computational modelling of educational units accordingly to different pedagogical approaches. These languages are presented as formal specifications to capture the elements and behaviours involved in educational units. Eventually, these models are intended to support the execution of appropriate e-learning systems, enabling the provision of educational units in accordance with different pedagogical approaches. Currently, a main problem of these languages is their complexity. It is very difficult both to create models of educational units and to develop software systems supporting their execution. This paper introduces an EML proposal to simplify the modelling of educational units. The key of this proposal is the separation of the modelling in several issues as independently as possible. Then, as each issue can be approached in a separated way from other issues the complexity problem is simplified.

Keywords

  • Educational Modelling Languages;
  • IMS Learning Design;
  • Separation of concerns;
  • Perspectives

PoEML: A Flexibility Approach for Models of Educational Practices

Ibero-American Conference Papers
M. Caeiro, M. J. Marcelino, M. Llamas, L. Anido, A. J. Mendes
8º Simposio Internacional de Informática Educativa. León (Spain), October 24-26, 2006

Abstract

This paper presents PoEML: Perspective-oriented Educational Modeling Language. The key of this proposal is the separation of the modeling in several issues as independently as possible. This proposal is intended to support flexibility of models of educational practices. Flexibility on these models is needed to support alternatives and changes during their execution. The capacity to support such flexibility is directly related with the features of the EML meta-model. The proposal of separation of issues supports flexibility as long as the modeling in each issue can be performed in an almost separated way. The paper includes a practical example to demonstrate the main points.

Introducción a los Aspectos para Soportar la Adaptación en el Modelado de Unidades Didácticas con PoEML

Ibero-American Conference Papers
M. Caeiro, M. Llamas, L. Anido, J. Fontenla, A. Estévez
7º Simposio Nacional de Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones para la Educación. Zaragoza (Spain), September 11-14, 2007

Abstract

This paper introduces the modeling of aspects in PoEML: Perspective-oriented EML. EMLs (Educational Modeling Languages) are devoted to support the modeling of educational units. A main point in the use of educational units’ models is adaptability. It is about the capacity of a run-time system to behave in different ways in accordance with the specifications maintained in the models of educational units. The key idea underlying PoEML is to break down the modeling of educational units into several parts that can be specified in an almost separated way. This separation enables to maintain several alternative specifications in the models of educational units. Meanwhile, the PoEML aspects introduced in this paper enable to control the application of each alternative specification.

Soporte de Dependencias en el Modelado Computacional de Unidades Didácticas con JPoEML

Book Chapter
M. Caeiro, M. Llamas, L. Anido, J. Fontenla, A. Estévez
9º Simposio Internacional de Informática Educativa. Porto (Portugal), November 14-16, 2007

Abstract

This paper introduces a graphical authoring tool to support the creation of computational models of educational units in accordance with PoEML: Perspective-oriented EML. EMLs (Educational Modelling Languages) are devoted to support the modelling of educational units. The main idea underlying PoEML is to break down the modelling of educational units into separate parts that can be specified independently. In correspondence, the model of each part can be represented by a different graphical diagram, involving specific elements and relations. The authoring tool introduced in this paper supports the creation of several diagrams and facilitates the control of dependencies among perspectives.

Keywords

  • EML;
  • Modelado;
  • Diseño Gráfico;
  • Separación de Asuntos;
  • Dependencias